Vì sao người hồi phục có thể tái nhiễm Covid-19 ?

Ảnh : Time

Chuyên gia y tế cảnh báo kháng thể ở người bình phục chưa đủ mạnh hoặc tồn tại không lâu để giúp họ miễn nhiễm nCoV trong những lần tiếp xúc sau.

Hôm 26/2, cơ quan y tế Nhật Bản báo cáo trường hợp tái nhiễm Covid-19 đầu tiên ở nước này. Một hướng dẫn viên ở Osaka lần đầu dương tính với nCoV hồi cuối tháng 1 và được xuất viện cách đây ba tuần sau khi có dấu hiệu bình phục. Nhưng khi người phụ nữ quay lại bệnh viện để khám do bị đau họng và đau ngực, các xét nghiệm nCoV một lần nữa cho kết quả dương tính.

Các trường hợp tái nhiễm nCoV ở người bình phục cũng xuất hiện ở Trung Quốc:

Hôm 21/2, Trung tâm Y tế Y tế Công cộng thành phố Thành Đô, tỉnh Tứ Xuyên, Trung Quốc, xác nhận một bệnh nhân Covid-19 tái nhiễm sau gần 10 ngày xuất viện. Hôm 28/2, Trung tâm Kiểm soát và Phòng ngừa Dịch bệnh (CDC) Quảng Đông ghi nhận khoảng 14% bệnh nhân khỏi nCoV và được xuất viện ở tỉnh này cho kết quả dương tính với nCoV trong đợt xét nghiệm sau đó. Hiện chưa có kết luận rõ ràng về nguyên nhân hay liệu các bệnh nhân này có tiếp tục lây bệnh cho người khác hay không, Tống Thiết, phó giám đốc CDC Quảng Đông nói.

Zhan Qingyuan, giám đốc phòng ngừa và điều trị viêm phổi ở Bệnh viện Hữu nghị Trung – Nhật, cảnh báo người bình phục có thể tái nhiễm nCoV. “Vẫn có nguy cơ tái nhiễm đối với bệnh nhân đã hồi phục. Cơ thể họ sẽ sản sinh kháng thể. Tuy nhiên, ở một số cá nhân, kháng thể không tồn tại lâu dài”, ông Zhan cho biết.

Họ virus corona bao gồm virus gây dịch SARS, MERS và cảm lạnh thường. Phần lớn lây nhiễm qua đường hô hấp trên. Khi virus xâm nhập vào cơ thể, chúng tìm cách bám vào và xâm chiếm tế bào vật chủ. Đáp lại, hệ miễn dịch của con người tạo ra kháng thể, những protein có khả năng nhận biết và tiêu diệt virus. Đó là cách con người trở nên miễn dịch với một số loại bệnh. Ví dụ, trẻ em bị thủy đậu sẽ miễn dịch với bệnh này khi trưởng thành. Vaccine là một biện pháp khác để phát triển miễn dịch.

“Với nhiều bệnh truyền nhiễm, một người có thể phát triển miễn dịch đối với chủng virus cụ thể sau khi bị lây”, Amira Roess, giáo sư y tế toàn cầu và dịch tễ học ở Đại học George Mason, giải thích. “Thông thường, người đó sẽ không đổ bệnh ở những lần tiếp xúc với mầm bệnh sau đó”.

Nhưng với nCoV, các bác sĩ cho rằng kháng thể mà bệnh nhân tạo ra không đủ mạnh hay tồn tại đủ lâu để giúp họ miễn nhiễm hoàn toàn với bệnh dịch trong thời gian dài. Sau khi nhiễm bệnh, virus có thể ở trạng thái bất hoạt với rất ít triệu chứng, sau đó bệnh tình sẽ trở nên trầm trọng nếu virus tìm đường vào phổi, Philip Tierno, giáo sư ở Trường Y thuộc Đại học New York, cho biết.

Theo giáo sư Samuel McConkey, phó hiệu trưởng Đại học Phẫu thuật Hoàng gia ở Ireland, Covid-19 có thể tái lây nhiễm bởi điều đó đã từng xảy ra với các chủng virus corona trước đây. Sự xuất hiện của những ca tái nhiễm chứng tỏ một số người có thể không phát triển miễn dịch tự nhiên.

“Điều đáng lo ngại là Covid-19 có thể lan ra khắp thế giới trong tháng 3, 4, 5, và quay trở lại sau đó 3 tháng bởi chúng ta không được bảo vệ bởi miễn dịch sau lần lây nhiễm đầu. Dịch bệnh sẽ tiếp tục tuần hoàn trong nhiều năm cho tới khi chúng ta tìm ra công nghệ để kiểm soát nó”, McConkey chia sẻ. Ông cũng nhấn mạnh khả năng tái nhiễm có thể gây khó khăn cho công tác sản xuất vaccine hiệu quả ngừa nCoV.

Tuy nhiên, Patrick Mallon, giáo sư bệnh dịch do vi khuẩn ở Đại học Dublin, Ireland, cho rằng con người sẽ phát triển miễn dịch ở mức độ nào đó, tương tự như với cúm lợn (H1N1). Mallon chỉ ra dịch cúm lợn từng dẫn tới số ca lây nhiễm và tử vong cao khi xuất hiện lần đầu tiên. Nhưng ở những lần tuần hoàn sau, dịch bệnh này không còn nghiêm trọng nữa.

(Theo Business Insider/Irish Times)

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